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I have recently updated the page into sections as detailed in the quick links at the top of the page, and have put the competitions in alphabetical order, the only exception being discontinued competitions which appear at the bottom of the relevant list for reference only. I hope this makes the lists easier to use. Also, as the page is getting larger and the lists are getting longer, it is becoming harder for me to maintain.

I'll do my best to check all the links regularly, but if you spot any mistakes, outdated information or broken links, please let me know. I'm fortunate enough to have been published through some of the competitions in the lists below. In these instances, there will be links to the published stories and more detailed information about my direct experiences with the competition in question.

See Devil's Crush as an example. If you have been published through a short story competition and would be willing to write about your experiences for my website, please see my submission guidelines. UPDATE: Very short story flash fiction competitions previously listed on this page have been moved here onto a dedicated page to improve usability. Do you run a short story competition? Do you want it featured at the top of this page? If so, get in touch. This page is the most popular resource on my website, receiving between 10, and 16, visits a month.

To Hull And Back is a biennial humorous short story competition that offers 'the greatest literary prize in the known macrocosm'. You can decide for yourself whether that's true or not To my knowledge, To Hull And Back is the only short story competition that celebrates humorous writing. If I'm wrong and you know of another contest specifically for comedy writing, please let me know.

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In addition to this, the winner's face is featured on the front cover of the book, which is created by a different artist each year. But lots of fun. You can find out how to enter here. From to , the competition was run annually. It is now run biennially every other year : , , etc. Submissions for the contest open on 1st August The first table lists weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly and bi-annual short story competitions.

As mentioned above, details of very short story flash fiction competitions have now been moved to a dedicated resource. I mention it again here because there were a lot listed in the regular competition lists. Notes on Chris's Writing Challenges: Any style or genre but each challenge is themed, so check the link for current challenges - full details now available on a page dedicated to flash fiction competitions.

When this competition launched, I received a few concerns on Twitter. Some writers were worried that Solution Loans were exploiting writers for free content. I wrote to Solution Loans about these concerns and received this response:. The idea to sponsor a Short Story competition actually came from one of our employees who is a keen writer, and regularly enters competitions in her spare time. We thought it was a great idea, so offered to support it. We already employ a number of freelance writers to produce our blog and social media posts. Hopefully aspiring writers will see it as an opportunity to have their work recognised and published and win a cash prize.

I understand the concerns of the writers who queried the legitimacy of this contest. However, having worked in digital marketing, I also understand what Solution Loans are doing. I've done the same things for clients in the past. As the competition is legitimate, and Solution Loans were good enough to prepare the response above, I will be continuing to list the contest on my website. Winning writers receive cash prizes, so I don't believe they are being exploited - they are being paid for their stories. I hope this resolves any concerns, but if not, please feel free to contact me.

The second table lists well renowned and prestigious competitions which offer big cash prizes. There are a couple of other big prize awards listed in the Regular Short Story Competitions it seems pointless to list them twice. The third table lists yearly competitions of different genres offering a wide variety of prizes, some cash, some not. The majority offer publication to the winning writers and runners up.

Cinnamon Press Short Story Competition. Doris Gooderson Short Story Competition. Rejected Manuscripts Short Fiction Competition. The fourth table lists writing contests for young writers and children. Some of them have different age categories, so click on the links and be sure to read all the rules. There are sometimes other opportunities for young writers listed in the one-off competitions lists , or on the Flash Fiction competitions page. The fifth table lists one-off short story competitions, which are usually held to commemorate or celebrate a landmark event. As the list grows, I will add current competitions alphabetically at the top.

Contests that have already taken place will be moved to the History of Closed Short Story Competitions below - I think it's nice to keep a history, so I won't delete them. There are a few other websites that offer useful short story competition information. They are listed below:.

If you run a list on your website and would like it included here, please get in touch. I've launched pages listing many other publishing opportunities for short stories, flash fiction, poetry, novels and more. Below are a couple of other publishing opportunities that don't really fit any of the categories above:. Inkitt's Writing Contest offers a fantastic opportunity for stories that are 20, words or more in length. So it's perfect for longer short stories, novellas, novelettes and novels.

It's free to sign up to Inkitt. You can then submit your stories, making them available to their extensive readership. The winning stories are selected based on their popularity with Inkitt 's readers. The winners win cash prizes and are offered a publishing deal with Galatea. You can learn more on my novel and book competition lists. It offers the opportunity for writers to see their work published and make money from it. For reference, when you're spending hours trying to find a competition doesn't exist anymore, I thought I'd keep this handy history of short story competitions that have closed and writing websites that no longer exist.

I hope it's useful. Notes on Creative Competitor Competitions: These guys run, on average, 2 different writing competitions a month. Comps include short stories, poetry and more. I can't really keep on top of listing all the changes, so the best bet is to visit the website and see what they have running which might appeal to you - WEBSITE NOT updated for a year, so removed listing I removed this listing in after I started receiving complaints about the website, EG:.

Hour of Writes is listed on your website as a weekly competition but it appears to have stopped without announcement and some competition results are nearly three months in arrears. This website has never been well run but over the last few months it's been getting ever more erratic without the owner having the courtesy to properly inform anybody of what's going on and ignoring users' questions.

If you look at the HOW web page you can see a new competition hasn't been posted since about April. Anyway, as you run a great website I often use I thought I'd give you a heads up. The Inspired by Writing website has now disappeared. They have taken money from entrants and not refunded them without seeing the competition through to completion. If this business resurfaces, be very wary of entering the competition - it seems to be run in an unprofessional manner. Here is an update I received from Inspired By Writing in March about a month before the website disappeared :. We have had an extremely hectic period over the Christmas break on the run up to the February 28th.

Unfortunately our original date got pushed back due to our judging panel being changed and not finding the right people to fill these positions prior to their professional calendars being altered and then after having to compensate for suitable replacements. As most of you should know we have now had our original investors back out of the competition, leaving us in a somewhat sticky position on the run up to February. This is no fault of our own but our ambitions for back to back competitions is now going to have to be put on hold and more importantly, you need to be our first priority.

In saying this we have two alternatives we had to think about. Either give all the entrants a full refund or we stick at our search to get other suitable members to fulfil an agreement which was unfortunately not filled by our previous investors. After long deliberating with other colleagues we have decided to move it one last date to the April 30th If we do not achieve our winner's announcements by then all entries will receive a full refund into their paypal account that they originally entered with.

I will finish with a full apology from everybody here at Inspired by Writing for the delay in the announcements. We wasn't anticipating this on our run up to our first competition but it has educated us in a situation which will not happen again in the future. Please use the form below to leave your comments. All comments will be reviewed so won't appear on the page instantly. I will not share your details with anyone else. Most recent comments appear at the bottom of the page, oldest at the top. Best of luck getting the story placed!

Tim Thanks for doing this, very nicely laid out and easy to follow salient facts, it is much appreciated. I'm pretty new to short story writing and was looking for comps for a short I've just written. I didn't realise the problems I'd face with it being around 7, words though! Chris Fielden Thanks Tim, yes, there are very few competitions which accept over 5, words.

You can try the magazines page as a lot of the US publications take submissions around the 7, word mark. Perhaps, it could be added to the 'Other short Story Publishing' list. Brenda Thank you for compiling all these contests. The first time I was on this site I thought I saw a contest pertaining to anything to do with horses, but now can't find it.

Is it here? John W Hi. I have written 18 short stories for children say 4 to 8 years about a young bear and a hedgehog and their adventures. Perhaps you could recommend suitable competitions I could enter? Regards, John. Chris Fielden Hi John. Harshita N Thanx for providing so many opportunities on a single page. Harshita, I will list any short story competitions from any country there is one Egyptian one listed but I need to know about them! If there are any you know of that you'd like listed here, please tell me.

Richard B I just wanted to say thanks. Jan e B Hi Chris - your list is most useful, thank you. Bristol Prize has a word max of 4, rather than 3,ooo according to the website. Chris Fielden Thanking you Jane, much appreciated - I have updated the details accordingly Pamela A Wonderful, comprehensive listings - thank you very much. I've wasted too much time compiling lists instead of focusing on writing - procrastinating and getting too tidy!

Cheers and good health, Pamela. Russell S Your site is an excellent resource for someone such as myself looking to get on that tricky first rung of the publishing ladder. They have had to postpone their first issue in order to allow more submissions. It is to be writer voted i. I think it's a great concept and would be grateful if you could help spread the word by adding it to your list. Russell, thanks for the information. I've added Sixfold to the prestigious, big prize competition list.

Best of luck - I hope you do well in the competition Honor W I was searching for the annual competition for a book of Scottish Short Stories, which used to have the closing date of 31st Jan - but I can't find it. Does it no longer exist do you know or am I using the wrong search terms? Thanks for this list - it's very useful.

That closes in July, but the organisers might have changed the entry dates. K I Thank you sooo much for putting this up! Honestly, it has been of a great help to me. Anne Thank you so much for compiling this list! It's saved loads of time for me, and it's given me a lot of motivation too! I've written a collection of short stories and have decided to enter them in various competitions this year, since publishing them as a whole collection is proving to be quite difficult as a previously unpublished author.

However, there is one thought that is concerning me and I can't find the answer to it anywhere.

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Hence my asking you! If I win a competition, or am a runner-up, can I then use the story again in a collection at a later date? I don't want to enter and possibly win competitions if that means I then can't use the story again, as part of a complete collection. What you're talking about is exactly what I'm planning to do with my short stories long term - put a collection together, ALL of which will have been previously published. So I think it's a fantastic idea, but I am slightly biased However, I'm afraid I can't give you a definitive answer to your question, as I don't actually know.

I'd assume it would vary from publisher to publisher. I believe that having stories in your collection that are previously published would make your work far more saleable as the stories are of a proven quality - an editor or competition judge has already thought they were good enough to publish. It also gives you some great experience in dealing with editors so it's fabulous for your writing CV.

The only time you might run into issues is with the contracts you enter into when your work is published through competitions. The copyright generally remains with the author, meaning that after the magazine or competition have published your work, you are then free to resell it. That is certainly the case for all of the stories I've published, including one which is due to be in the Chapter One promotions anthology 'Primed' this year. For this particular story, I've had to sign quite a lengthy contract, but the copyright remains with me and, once their book is published, I'm free to do what I want with the story.

To back this theory up, 'The Golden Apples of the Sun' and 'The Collected Short Stories of Roald Dahl' are examples of 2 very famous books that contain stories that have been previously published in a wide variety of magazines. Admittedly, these are old books from established authors, but the fact that the stories were previously published didn't stop a publisher releasing them as a collection.

The books actually say where and when they were first published - maybe because they are obliged to, but probably because the reader will find it interesting. In the end, I'd advise you to try and get as many stories published as you can through competitions, always aiming to WIN! Even if it turns out that you can't use them in a collection, they might get a publisher's interest. Then you can write more stories for the collection once you have a publishing contract! Your answer is very encouraging, and pretty much what I suspected myself. It means that I can go ahead and enter loads of competitions in the meantime.

I will be super-aware of the contracts aspect, though, and try to ensure that the copyright remains with me. My husband suggested I 'just write more' if I can't re-use the stories, but you know how precious they become - I want to see them belong together, since I deliberately wrote them with similar themes to fit together neatly into a collection.

Celia Anderson

It would be annoying if I can only use them once. Many thanks again, and best of luck with your own collection. It sounds as if you're well on the way to putting one together! I know what you mean about stories becoming precious. I must admit though, over time, I've become less precious about them - I just like to see them in print! Roger S Christopher, I plan to enter one of the short story contests you mentioned. But I do have a 7,word short story set in England -- where we have often travelled to from here in the Colonies -- and wondered if you might be able to suggest a contest in the UK that accepts entries of that length.

All help appreciated. There are a couple of UK magazines that take longer stories - you can see them here. Christopher O This is a brilliant resource. I wish I knew of it earlier. Anne K Thanks for such a useful web site, just thinking of starting out again decades after having some small success with short story writing with HE Bates. Feel very inspired now! Samantha D This is so useful. Thanks, Alison. Dave P Thanks for this Chris, kind of you to share it. Very useful. Monica G Hi!! I'm sixteen years old and I'm an Indian.

My story is about adventure and little bit of detective work. I would really like your suggestions. Thank you so much! It contains competitions aimed at younger writers around your age. Best of luck! Pierre F You missed the Writers Type competition. They offer Amazon Gift Coupons as prizes.

It's a monthly affair, and winners qualify for re-entry in the Annual Competition, where the Coupon prize is more substantial. I had a quick look at your regulars listing but didn't see these mentioned. The magazines come together these days, one inside the other. Available at newsagents in the UK and probably elsewhere. They have a website.

Judith W Fascinating - the entire site - shall get weaving at once - thank you very much. This site is fanbloodytastic! Thank you so much for taking time to create it. My teeny worry is you mention Brit Writers. I was short listed in their Awards and travelled from Australia to England for the ceremony which was no hardship whatsoever! However, I have serious concerns about this lot - they will not reveal anything about themselves and wouldn't even say who the judges were apart from 'famous authors, members of book clubs, editors See Harry Bingham's Writers' Workshop blog about them post 1 here and post 2 here.

Dodgy as. Thanks again, MC. Chris Fielden Thanks for the heads up Moody :- If you have any other info about this, please let me know! Moody C I felt really deflated by Brit Writers - in fact, I even wondered if I'd been chosen because I live in Australia and it looked good on their fancy programme. A lad at our table on the evening had been shortlisted in the song writing category. He said that when he received the phone call re the shortlist he was told that if he didn't travel to London for the ceremony then he couldn't win!

Another lady was there with her two young daughters. One daughter 12 had been shortlisted in the children's category. The other daughter was 9 and they travelled from Cornwall. A few months later I got an email saying the CEO of the company wanted one-to-one meetings with all finalists 'to see what he could do to help I never heard another word. Perhaps I'm being harsh but you know when you just have a bit of a funny old feeling? Chris Fielden Certainly do Moody! Thanks for sharing this, it's really useful for users of my website to be able to see this kind of information. Anyone else got any info on Brit Writers they'd like to share?

Jackie P This is a great resource and wonderful of you to have put so much of your time and effort into putting this together. Tired of writing "legalese", I'd like to try and return to a more creative format and was wondering where to look for short story contests. Look no further! Thank you! Stella S Hello, first time visitor to your site, I'll definitely bookmark it! Thank you. Duffy, to boot. Am I having a dim moment, or does merely entering a story to them mean that it will never be free of them again?

My 'copyright' as author merely assures my right to have my name linked with my work and any quotation from the same, doesn't it? Regards, and thanks for your helpful page. I am familiar with the Manchester writing competition - I've entered it before, but not got anywhere. If you enter, you retain all rights to your story. You just grant the Manchester Writing Competition first publication rights.

This is standard stuff and very fair, especially given the 10K prize. This means, once the they have published your story, you can do what you want with it. At least, that's how I understand it. Venu G Hi there, thanks so much for this super-helpful list. Just to help you keep it updated I'd like to let you know that one link is broken. It's in the notes of the Bridgewater competition, where it says you can get way more info by clicking 'here'.

I'm in India now so there's a chance it just doesn't work here. Thanks again! Chris Fielden Thanks Venu, it was broken! I've updated it :- Cheers, Chris. I'd like to get my students interested in writing so I thought participating in writing competitions would be a good start. Unfortunately, due to the dearth of such competitions in Malaysia, I'm forced to search the international scene. I came across your fantastic website. I need to know: Do they accept international entries? Chris Fielden Hi Petrina, most of the competitions listed on the site accept entries from residents in any country as long as the stores are written in English.

Lynn L Hi Chris, a writer friend put me onto your site and it's great. It's well organised, honest whilst remaining encouraging and it's great to see that you update so regularly as some sites allow their info to become out of date quickly. Thanks for your hard work. Chioma C Hello Chris, thank you for such a comprehensive list! I'm a budding poet, and wondered if you could point me in the direction of poetry competitions please? Many thanks! Chris Fielden Hi Chioma, you could try getting a copy of Writers Forum magazine as they list poetry competitions regularly and also run a poetry competition every month.

Or try the Poetry Library. They list many competitions and it looks like it's kept quite up to date Chioma C Hello Chris, I looked it up, many thanks! Followed you on Twitter too Looked at your activity there and I see you list competitions there as well. Here is an extract from the mail: Entries can be submitted online or by post. Please find more details and terms and conditions of entry on the InterAct Reading Service website.

I just wanted to add some things - although the Frank O Connor is only for published writers, there is another competition through MunsterLit, which is the Sean O Faoilain short story which is I think open to all, needing just an unpublished story. Listowel writers week staff are also a tremendous group of people to work with - very supportive and helpful. I've updated the page accordingly Fionnuala K You are welcome, Chris.

Thank you again for a great resource and good luck with the writing, Fionnuala. Bree W This is a great list, thanks Chris for putting it together. Just a quick question, I'm very new to this and was wondering if you could enter the same story in multiple competitions? Just wondering. Thanks in advance. Hi Bree, it depends on each individual competition's rules. Some are happy for you to enter your work elsewhere, like the Bristol Prize for example, but many prefer you not to enter your work for consideration elsewhere until they have announced their winners.

Personally, I think you should be able to enter stories into as many competitions as you like as you will sometimes be waiting for months to hear about results and it can seriously slow up your publishing rate. However, I can see why competition administrators ask you not to enter your work elsewhere, as it can cause them problems if your work is placed and they select you as a winner.

I'd just use your common sense, but bear in mind that the probability of being placed in more than one competition at once is unlikely, no matter how good your writing is! If you do enter more than one competition at once, I'd just let any other competitions know when your work has been accepted elsewhere so it causes them minimum inconvenience. Bree W Thanks for the reply :- Now to filter through the competitions and pick a couple. Thanks again Anthea C Thank you so much for all the work you have put into your website. So helpful. Do you have any ideas of a competition that I could enter my lower sixth A level English students into?

They have just returned to school after taking their AS levels and I want them to study narratology and am going to get them to write a short story. It would be great if they knew it was being entered for a competition, because then it would make it feel more important to them. Any ideas? Many thanks. Chris Fielden Anthea, you could try one or two of the competitions from the list I have for young writers and children on this page. Aside from that, maybe one of regular competitions, like Writers' Forum, as you can enter that at anytime during the year. But you'd have to check they don't have an age limit.

Edmund W Just wanted to say thanks very much for collating all this information - extremely useful to aspiring novelists! Maureen O Thanks so much for this list and for all the effort that you obviously put into it. I may have missed it but I did not see the Glimmer Train Stories. They run different competitions year long. Cheers, Maureen. Palash P Thank you so much, Christopher. It's quite an exhaustive list.

I belong to the Writers' family in India. Of late I felt the hunger to put my thoughts into words and it resulted in immense gratification. I do not know if I have the X factor in me to become a writer and create a niche in someone's heart, but I can try! Chris Fielden Welcome, Palash - best of luck with your writing Bill C First time I saw all the comps listed. Very helpful! Mandy T Just wanted to thank you for such an excellent website.

I found out about Myslexia and Scribble magazines here and now subscribe to both - waiting to hear back from Scribble re a short story I recently sent them as I write this I've also entered several competitions this year from your extensive listings, and have just found four more I'd like to try my hand at. Happy writing! Mandy - glad you found this resource so useful. It would be great to hear how you get on with the competitions Marlene P Hi Chris, this is excellent. I write a lot of short stories. What you have done here is very helpful. Can you let me know what Writing Course you did?

Thanks a lot. I found it very comprehensive and did the non-fiction and fiction modules. Let me know if you have any questions about it. Marlene P Thanks Chris I've been reading your stories Emma W Hi Chris, thank you very much for this resource. My question - In your experience do successful short stories usually approximate the maximum word limit?

In other words, would a 2, word short story be considered an acceptable entry in a competition with a 5, word limit? Chris Fielden Hi Emma, in my experience, it doesn't matter how long the story is, it's the quality of the story that counts. For example, I've had 2, word story published through a 5, word limit competition before. The only exception to this is if a contest stipulates a minimum and a maximum, which some magazines do to fit their print requirements.

But if no minimum is stated, you should be fine entering any length of story. Hope that's helpful It can be entered throughout the year and is free. Fiction, non published and free. Regards, H. Chris Fielden Hi Helen, to list the comp, I need the details and I can't find any entry rules or anything online. Are you familiar with the rules how to enter, entry dates, prizes offered, dates, word limit, frequency of the comp etc? I'd need all these to list the comp. If you could point me in the right direction it would be much appreciated Helen M Hi Chris, thanks for reply. It's a noted competition in Ireland.

I've added a link. I was sent a link by a friend which is how I ended up entering. Hope this helps and if not please feel free to email me back. Well done on the comp list you have provided. And thanks very much Helen :- I've contacted www. I'll let you know if they get back to me. Tanya V Hi. In other words, whereas Gray shows us what's in the literary landscape, Blake illustrates how much we've yet to see.

Blake's and Wollstonecraft's productive problematizations of nature inform our approach to the writings of William Wordsworth. Wordsworth, of course, looms large in the landscape of Romanticism as a founding father for the movement, mostly because of his explicit recourse to the natural world. A contextually intensive assessment of his poetry that attends closely to his environmental vision can help place the extent of his influence and open his oeuvre to discussion, so that his instructive articulation of the Romantic ethos doesn't eclipse the work of contemporaries who pursue comparable agendas.

Wordsworth's writing provides good test cases for the Romantic imagination because, given that he achieves what is for many readers a more familiar literary balance of aesthetics and politics, his poetry can be an interesting mix of rhetorically intriguing phenomena and vivid landscapes mellowed by memory. It is both a recovery of poetic tradition as Gray conceived of it—indeed, in such tracts as the Preface to Lyrical Ballads and the Essay Supplementary to Poems , Wordsworth celebrates such poets as Virgil, Milton, Spenser, Shakespeare, and Thomson, and elsewhere acknowledges the influence of such predecessors as Warton, Cowper and Smith—and an extension of its reach into newer, more "realistic" fields of focus.

Put another way, although Wordsworth often achieves innovation in landscape depiction—particularly by concerning himself with otherwise peripheral places such as the Lake District, the South Downs, Wales and Scotland, rather than with the neoclassically charged Thames Valley scenes that pervade the works of Pope and Thomson—the landscapes he describes are nevertheless part of the same island that gives British literature place. In this respect, Wordsworth's literary intervention is an expressly anthologic gesture toward re-collecting poetic tradition, an attempt to clarify the fount of poetry by reorienting it toward the landscape of everyday life.

This project finds its expression in anthology form—the co-authored compilation Lyrical Ballads , which features a complex social landscape whose moral scope is not unlike that of Blake's Songs and whose elaborate imagery and experiments in style enrich its presentation.

In his Preface to the work, Wordsworth cultivates an emphatic "earthiness" which is designed to democratize the literary imagination by "grounding" it in the popular parlance, so that poetic expression might yet overcome the "gross and violent stimulants" agitating the cultural consciousness, take root in everyday experience, and fulfill its potential as "the image of man and nature" , Indeed, he justifies his focus on "low and rustic life" by asserting that, in such a condition, "the essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity, are less under restraint, and speak a plainer and more emphatic language" Landscape, in this formulation, becomes a common denominator of sentiment, psychology, character and society; it stages these things in the British countryside and collects them into poetic tradition.

Nevertheless, lest the Lyrical Ballads ' strong human element overwhelm our sense of landscape's powers of organization, as a class we take this opportunity to assemble a collection of perspectives on Wordsworth's poetic geography. Based on the idea that sketching is tantamount to commenting—just as paintings are often regarded as "interpretations"—we explore intersections between the physical, personal, and rhetorical environments in the third of his five "Poems on the Naming of Places" by drawing the landscape it elaborates.

This work features Wordsworth's poetics at their most fundamental, insofar as the landscape it describes assumes something of a personality that permeates and transforms the place. Then we comparatively analyze the pictures, observing relationships between the human and natural worlds in each interpretation with respect to position, depth, size, color, style, inclusion and exclusion. Whereas most illustrations include a prominent mountain, setting sun, stars, clouds, groves, fields, a house and sometimes people, no two are ever alike, such that in concert they represent the range of imagined worlds that proceed from one poem, a veritable anthology of interpretations born of one literary landscape.

Landscape in this instance is both subject to and source of creative readings that infinitely re-incarnate Wordsworth's vision by selectively emphasizing its natural and psychological components. Such is perhaps the ultimate outcome of "conversation poetry," as Coleridge termed the form: presented familiarly, lyrical landscapes address literary moments and give rise to many more via readers' interpretations, thereby unlocking the generative potential of poetry, of the larger anthology in which it occurs, and of the canon itself.

Against the backdrop of this anthologically-sensitive series of landscapes within and beyond our anthologies, and with the literary territory of the anthology form thus staked out, reading the rest of Romantic literature becomes a relatively straightforward matter of distinguishing features in the remaining textual landscape of the anthology, and allowing suggestive relationships to play themselves out.

As we saw with Blake, Wollstonecraft and Wordsworth, approaching Romantic literature through the filter of anthologization sets seemingly ossified categories in play by encouraging reader response. It allows us to exploit contrasts in context; for every expostulation there is a reply—as is the case in exchanges as fundamental as those between Coleridge and his contemporaries Anna Barbauld and Mary Darby Robinson, who reply to his fanciful landscapes with landscapes of their own. It was a luxury,—to be! Barbauld gently chided him for such flights of fancy, especially as they relate to his metaphysical pursuits.

Her poem "To Mr. Though the terms of the debate are complex, the writers share a common ground in the language of landscape. In attending to the places that they describe, we can thus ascertain their rhetorical positions with respect to Coleridge's visions and the Romantic imagination more generally. These pronounced differences in the places that Romantic writers describe beg questions about the kinds of landscape for which the movement is known and those that we have been prone to overlook over the years, in light of prevailing definitions of Romanticism.

As indicators of authorial perspectives and hence identities, representations of place can be important indices of canonical position. To wit, if we tend to privilege the expansive, idealized landscapes for which—with the possible exception of Keats—the Big Six Romantic poets are known, we may underappreciate subtler, more intricate or intimate landscapes pursued by other writers particularly women.

Coleridge, as we have seen, likes to look out on landscape; even when he is confined in a lime-tree bower, he finds means of transcending his immediate environs and following his friends' rambles through his mind's eye. Similarly, his "Reflections on Having Left a Place of Retirement" quickly proceed from the front door of his "pretty Cot" and the roses, jasmine and myrtle that frame its "Valley of Seclusion" to the top of that aforementioned "Stony Mount" , Yet, as Keats so plainly shows, there is more to landscape than prospect alone: sometimes it is just as palpable when one "cannot see what flowers are at [his] feet" and is left in "embalmed darkness" to "guess each sweet" "Ode to a Nightingale" 41, In sum, it is too simple to categorize Romanticism in terms that privilege sweeping landscapes and underestimate those of smaller scope.

These authors' alternative landscapes thus test the anthology's frame of reference and gesture beyond it to the kinds of expression it underrepresents. Such urgency is often generic in nature; whereas, given its relative "portability," poetry is easy to anthologize, anthologies are notoriously difficult environs for prose—despite Wordsworth's famous claim in the Preface to Lyrical Ballads that the most "naturally arranged" poetry does not differ from prose , and Shelley's attempt to describe all imaginative expression as poetry, in his "Defence" thereof.

In light of Romanticism's pronounced poetic achievements, the prose tracts that we read for the course bear considerable weight as foils for the anthology and representatives of a wider world, literary and otherwise. Jane Austen's Mansfield Park , for instance, dramatizes the tensions between the privileged pastime of landscape appreciation and the political reality of economic exploitation behind it in the form of the indentured labor that supports the Bertrams' comfortable way of life, and the changes in the political landscape that affect life and landscape at Mansfield.

In addition to Austen's novels—each of which offers witty social critique with respect to landscape—Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's narrative pronouncements on her husband's extreme landscapes amplify the human dramas that occur within them. Similarly, while the narratives of Olaudah Equiano and Mary Prince have much in common with eighteenth-century generic forms that predate Romanticism, their adventures provide invaluable political and social contexts—and expose a wider world—than the anthology can only sketch. Of course, this is to say nothing of essayists, many of whom are responsible for shaping the public perception of Romantic writing at the time although we might not realize it given how little space they garner in anthologies.

That said, the course culminates with each student writing a term paper on a work or author that our anthology includes but our course reading does not. In arguing for the inclusion of overlooked works or authors, students comment on their writers' depictions of place and on the infrastructure of the anthology not to mention that of the syllabus , ultimately "canonizing" their selections just as literary scholars reassess the canon through their own inquiries.

Such an exercise is important, particularly because vast expanses of our anthology inevitably go unexplored by the end of term, and more so because the era it documents is only as relevant as students make it. As they assess where we have been and where we may yet go, their resultant analyses explain their interest in their choices and relate them to other works we have read, so as to comparatively situate both in the Romantic canon.

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In making room in the canon for their selections, students learn to cultivate parallels between Romantic audiences of the past and present, to "place" Romanticism for themselves, and to be informed surveyors of literature in general. Mandell, Linkin and Raley's Anthologies website lists literary anthologies and miscellanies that appeared during and after the Romantic era.

Of course, Guillory also has much to say on this head; see especially his remarks on the formative aspects of course syllabi Cultural Capital Though we benefit from their advocacy of literary history as a means to ecological awareness, these critics often resort to positivistic generalizations about the Romantic ethos that devolve from inadequate inventories of its historical contexts, and a failure to contextualize poetry as one of many media that condition our sense of place.

It rises above the road by the side of Grasmere lake, towards Keswick, and its name is Stone-Arthur" Works But if the class meets in a computer classroom, we use Tux Paint , a freeware drawing program that is designed for preschoolers but can be entertaining and instructive for adults as well.

Bate, Jonathan. Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. New York: Routledge, Besserman, Lawrence, ed.

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New York: Garland, British Women Romantic Poets, — UC-Davis General Library. Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Steven Rendall. Di Leo, Jeffrey R. On Anthologies: Politics and Pedagogy. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, Ferry, Anne. Stanford: Stanford UP, Oxford U. Galperin, William, and Susan Wolfson, eds.

U of Maryland. Gilpin, William. London: R. Blamire, Guillory, John. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Harrison, Gary. Nineteenth-Century Contexts Hothem, Thomas. Syllabus for "Placing Romanticism. Kroeber, Karl. New York: Columbia UP, Lonsdale, Roger, ed. The Poems of Gray, Collins, and Goldsmith. Longman Annotated English Poets. London: Longman, Romanticism on the Net 7 August Oxford U.

Manning, Peter. Pamela Woof. Review 15 : McGann, Jerome J. New York: Oxford UP, Mellor, Anne K. Matlak, eds. British Literature — New York: Harcourt Brace, Burial was often impossible. Then, when the gas escaped, the bodies dried up like mummies and were frozen in their death positions These rats were very large and quite fearless, their familiarity with the dead having made them contemptuous of the living. One night one fell on my face in a dugout and bit me. Under fire: Troops learned to put up with constant bombardment, and unrelenting experience of death.

I once fell and put my hand right through the belly of a man.

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It was days before I got the smell out of my nails. As you lifted a body by the arms and leg, the torso detached. Everyone lent a hand in this gruesome task. I was not particularly afraid of being killed. There seems to be a natural instinct when fighting to lean forward, to protect them. And yet there were also times when he escaped the trenches for a short spell of leave and rode his horse over green fields a few miles behind the lines. It was a period of summer hayfields, singing birds and flowers on the one hand, and of mud, blood and the stink of dead bodies on the other, with nothing to separate these two worlds but a few hours of marching time In the field: A memorial statue in Ypres, Belgium, the scene of much fighting, is lit by the sunset.

He was astonished by the quiet courage around him. Word would be passed on, echoing down the line. Men with stomach wounds moaned. Otherwise there was silence.


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Human dignity was often shattered as the wounds and sicknesses of war took their terrible toll. So I took him by one arm and another pal got hold of him by the other, and we dragged him to the latrine. We tried to keep the flies off him and to turn him round - put his backside towards the trench. But he simply rolled into the trench, half-sideways, head first in the slime.


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He drowned in his own excrement. In my company there are only 10 men left. The distance was shrouded by rain and mist, from out of which the boom of gunfire came distant and muffled. It was the sounds of the battlefield that stuck in the memory of novelist Ford Madox Ford. Home: Soldiers spent months - if not years - mostly hunkered down in trenches like these. The war, he was discovering, made him impervious to normal emotions.

When he saw a thousand casualties on stretchers coming away from the front line he felt depressed - not for them but for himself, because he would have to go back into the hell from which they had come. Nurse Sarah MacNaughton saw similar lines of wounded arriving at her field hospital. They fall asleep even while their wounds are being dressed. Others lie very stiff and straight, and all look very thin and haggard. Leslie Holden was one such casualty, lying in a hospital bed in France and writing home to his family in Australia.

Yet amid the carnage, what grew was an intense sense of comradeship that kept men fighting when everything inside them screamed out to run and get away. Guy Chapman wrote lyrically about returning with his regiment from a brief respite out of the front line, spirits astonishingly high considering the major offensive they knew awaited them.

We are content to live in the moment, to feel the warm sun, to enjoy the strength of our bodies, and to be lulled by the rhythmical momentum with which we march. At the halts they lay in the long wet grass and gossiped, enormously at ease. The whistle blew. They jumped for their equipment.

Hump your pack and get a move on, the next hour, man, will bring you three miles nearer to your death. Craters: Fighters advancing on enemy positions often took shelter in holes such as these left by enemy shells. You are not even a pawn. There was also courage, of the sort displayed by year-old Lieutenant Tom Adlam on the Somme.

The trench we had to capture was yards away and we got halfway before the machine guns started up and we dived into shell holes. His commanding officer wanted to call off the operation and pull back, but Adlam pressed on. And they did just that, following the lead of a popular officer.

The captured trench was full of abandoned German grenades, one of which Adlam tossed in the direction of the enemy. They came to a crossroads, from which one trench led to the Schwaben Redoubt, a massive complex of machine-gun emplacements and dug-outs at the heart of the German defensive line on the Somme.